When it comes to maintaining an aquarium, using a filter is the ultimate option you have to take! Usually, these filters efficiently make your fish tank livable and breathable for your aquatic pets. These days, canister filters are people’s favorite for all the benefits and convenience they can provide. But how to set up a canister filter in your aquarium?
Aquarium canister filters (ex. Fluval canister filter) are perfect when you want crystal clear water and with the proper filtration. But none of these can be achieved if the main system is not functional. For this, you have to make sure this power filter is appropriately arranged. While the process is not very difficult, a beginner might not feel the same.
While most manufacturers provide instructions with the package, following them can be a bit time-consuming. From cutting the hose to attaching them to the canister, we have included all the crucial information right here!
What Is a Canister Filter & How to Set Up?
Aquarium filters are very crucial for filtering all the waste materials and pollutants from the tank water. This filtration can be done through mechanical, chemical, and biological filtration processes. The filter media for these processes are also different from each other. Filter floss, filter pads, good bacteria, coarse sponge pads, etc., are some of the most common media.
These filter media work to eradicate debris, toxins, and chemical substances from the water, so your aquatic animals can have a healthy environment. There are various types of filters for you to choose from. But if you want a multipurpose one, a canister filter is the best option for you. Due to their features and performance, most aquarists prefer these more than others.
The canister filter is mainly an internal filter, known as an external filter. You have to install them externally with the aquarium. It will have a combined set of various filtration media to screen the water. The fundamental mechanism of this filter is to use pressure and a pump to push the water for better filtration. It also has intake and outlet hoses to manage the siphoning of the water.
Once the media is done filtering, the water will return to the aquarium using a spray bar. For better filtration, this filter has three main parts, a pump, tubings, and cartridge. The motor housing is cylinder-shaped with the filter media and rotor resting inside. Due to its efficient performance, you can use a canister filter for filtering drinking water as well.
Getting All the Parts Together Before Setting up
As easy it may sound, a canister filter can not run on its own. To make sure it works perfectly, you have to make sure that all the hoses, pipes, and plugins are working properly to get the best filtration process. While you get all those fittings with the package, you may have to buy a few things extra.
- Before starting to set up the canister, make sure all the parts are free of any damage. To avoid all types of hassles, double-check before putting them in the tank. This is pretty important in case the canister comes with damaged media.
- Next, choose a proper spot where you can put your filter. You should install it between 4.5-8 inches below the water surface. However, check the manufacturer’s instructions as each filter has different requirements you must follow.
- After figuring out the filter spot, measure all the parts to make sure you have enough of them. You wouldn’t want to move an already installed filter just because the hoses can’t reach the aquarium or it can’t be powered sufficiently.
- You may have to cut the outlet and intake tube before putting them in the tank. Make sure to keep some scissors and clasps close to you. All the elements should be properly cleaned before you insert them into the bowl of water.
What You Need To Set Up A Canister Filter
For the perfect setup, you need the filter, its segments with all the media to begin. The exact elements that come with your specific filter may change, but generally, you must have some parts.
- A Motor
- Activated carbon
- Aquarium Connectors
- Media bags
- Media trays
- Hose clips
- Hose clasps
- Inlet Assembly
- Outlet Assembly
- Filter canister
- Foam Inserts
- Ceramic Rings
Regular hosing can be stiff and difficult to handle. While thick tubing is necessary, it should be flexible enough as well. You can always opt out of the generic vinyl tubing rather than the expensive replacement tubings. These are reasonably priced, and you can cut the length according to your need.
Depending on the canister filter, you may get pre-packed ceramic rings as the primary biological filter media. Some may prefer bio-balls as they deteriorate slowly.
The canister filter may come with a specific foam padding type for mechanical filtration. But to get the best result, you can use a combination of fine foam, coarse foam, and extra-fine foam.
If the package of canister filters comes without media (Bio-media, Chemical media, Mechanical media), you have to buy one separately. After getting it, you can insert it into the filter for later usage. You will see different trays inside the filters to put the media.
The first step is to remove the filter top. Every filter normally comes with 3-4 slots for the media. You have to decide how many you are going to use. The first tray should have mechanical filter media to catch the harsh debris. It will also make sure the filter doesn’t clog easily. The next one to go should be suitable for biological media.
Lastly, add the chemical media on the third spot. Many owners tend to mix various types of chemical media for this part. As a beginner, you can opt-out of carbon as they are affordable and easily found.
Make sure you follow the order of media. Otherwise, the filter may lose effectiveness. This sequence will make sure all the media run in sync, ultimately giving you a well-filtered surrounding.
How to Set Up A Canister Filter?
Setting up a canister filter is not very complicated if you know what steps to follow. The main focus while installing the filter is to be careful and do the attachments properly. As there are many external filters available in the market, keep in mind each brand comes with different configurations.
OASE BioMaster Thermo, Hydor, Fluval fx6, Sunsun, and Penn Plax cascade are some of the most popular canister filters you can buy for your aquarium filtration. While the basic rules are similar, a few steps might be different depending on the manufacturer. But you can install them yourself nonetheless.
To help you understand the installation process, all the necessary steps are mentioned below with a description.
Identify the Parts
Unpack the full package and get the listing of the filter parts. Check if all the required tools are present there. Your aquarium canister filter should have everything that is needed to start pumping. If you get the filter media within the package, check them and make sure they are intact and suitable for your filter.
Prepare the Tank
You have to find the proper spot to set your filter media. Always keep the filter below the aquarium for the best result. Make sure the aquarium is water-filled to the max, and the hosing can be put in the tank following a direct route. Test the tubings before you set up the filter. You wouldn’t want any slack, kinks, or loops in your tubings.
Prepare the Filter
Now, let’s proceed to prepare the media for your filter. Detach the motor head of the canister filter and check if all of the media trays are inside. As we have mentioned earlier, you have to follow a specific order to fill the trays. Hence, pick suitable media and sort them out by categories. Then install those media layer by layer.
If you see a gap under the filters while inserting the media trays, line the bottom part with some ceramic rings to prevent waste from gathering down there.
Install Mechanical Media
Place the mechanical media on the first media basket. After the filter pulls out water from the aquarium, it flows through the canister filter’s first basket. Gradually it crosses the other media and becomes cleaner with each one. This is precisely why you should put the mechanical filtration in the first place, so the large waste materials get stuck to it.
With less debris to carry, the water can easily get to the chemical and biological screenings. This way, the later ones won’t get sealed with debris. Also, mix the foam varieties and put them in the media tray following a specific order.
Installing Biological Media
In this step, add the biological media to the 2nd basket from underneath. You can use bio-balls or ceramic rings, whatever you prefer. Biohome can be another great option to fulfill the filtration demands. It means you won’t have to combine the media anymore. Some may put the biological media in a filter bag. However, putting them in the trays directly won’t cause any harm as well.
Install Chemical Media
Now to the remaining media baskets. The third and possibly fourth (if you have one) trays can be filled by mixing the components. You can also use the same media if you are not comfortable with the former idea.
You can combine activated carbon and some phosphate removers and put them in a filter bag. Using a bag is necessary if you don’t want the granules to clog the aquarium canister filter’s impeller.
Prepare For the Intake Placement
The intake is the part where the canister filter pulls water from the aquarium. If your filter has connectors to hold the hoses of the tank, fasten them to the aquarium. Now loosen the intake clamp and attach the hose to the canister filter.
Then after you attach the hose to the intake valve, tighten the clamp again. Run the hosing to the fish tank and cut the hose according to your need. Now, fix the hosing with the connector. Make sure to fasten the hose with an intake tube that goes into the tank water.
If you have no clear manufacturer’s instruction on how much the tube should go into the tank water, follow the three-inch rule and keep the tube-end minimum 3inch from the tank bottom.
Prepare the For The Output placement
This step is like how you did the intake prep. Set the connectors first, and then attach the filter and the hose. Measure and cut the hose as you need, and put the hose in the tank. However, you don’t have to put the outtake tube in the tank bottom. An inch below the water level will work just fine.
Start the Filter
This step can be different for filters depending on their configuration. The general rule is to check and see if every segment is connected and in the right place. Keep the valves open for the filters to pull and shift the water from the tank. Some filters may require a water-filled canister to start, so make sure it is filled with enough water.
Once the canister is ready, it is time to plug in the filter. If the filter includes a self-prime option, it will operate for a period so the water flow can get going. Later it will switch off and expel the excess air out from the canister. From then on, the canister will continuously run until you switch it off. If your filter has a priming button, you may have to pump that a few times to start.
Clean Tank Water
You can give it some time and watch the filter working, checking if everything is working smoothly. In some cases, your filter might make some sounds in the initial phase. But if you keep hearing the noises, you should check if any waste materials are clogging the filter elements.
If you see the gph or flow rate is relatively low, you should tighten the hose connections or clean the tubings of any obstructions.
What Can Go Wrong While Set Up A Canister Filter [Troubleshooting]
While installing the canister filter, there is no guarantee that no error is going to happen. There is always a chance of troubleshooting, but don’t worry because most of these issues can be solved.
- You have to use the canister pump to remove the air. It will prime the hoses and then prime the water in the hose. To avoid the funny taste, make sure you don’t prime the dirty water.
- If you see water keeps draining out of the tank, first, you need to close the taps on the tubes that work as both inlet and outlet of the tank. Now check all the connections to see what’s wrong.
- If you use too cold or hot water or mix chemicals inside the container, the bacteria in the canister may get killed, and the aquarium may de-cycle.
- If you don’t keep an eye on the hoses, water will spill and swamp your house.
- There is a chance of removing the water from the tank if you switch the hosings in the wrong sequence. Hence, carefully read the manual.
- If you don’t clean the 60L water container every three full cycles, the water inside will get dirty and pollute the environment. Make sure to clean the container often.
- Don’t add an excessive amount of de-chlorinator as it will damage the aquarium water. Use the required amount for the water you added later.
- If you find the canister is not pushing the water in the fish tank, the problem is in the height difference. You can use a small table or chair to increase the container height. It will help the canister to do its work perfectly.
- If you don’t clean the substrates on a regular schedule, they can get dirty. For a better result, use similar batteries like EHEIM and a recirculated substrate cleaner.
- If you have kids in your house, there is a chance for them to open the tap water and flood your home. Make sure to hide the taps from your kids.
- If your canister is not working, there must have been something missing during the setup. There are several factors that can go wrong, but not irreversible. The canister filter uses the water flow by connecting them with pipes or hoses. The one with a high volume of water will push the water down to the low-volume one. But keep in mind, the height difference of both components has to be sufficiently different.
- With all that connections and fittings attached, you may find it difficult at first glance. But once you get the knack for it, you will see how efficient this whole process is. With this setup, you don’t have to think about the maintenance process on a weekly basis. Just plug in the hosings and open or close the taps following the right order.
How do Canister Filters Work?
No matter how difficult it looks, the functionality of canister filters is fairly simple. There is a lifting tube that pulls the fish tank water and guides it to the filter chamber. Then, the water passes through a set of multiple filter media to get purified. The water flow may differ depending on the brand and model of the filter you are using.
The path can be center-out, top to bottom, back to front, bottom to top, etc. Moreover, canister filters are not limited to only one type of filter media. You can use it for biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration by mixing the media. The science of canister filters is one of the most basic natures, pulling and ejecting the water from a high-volume container to a low-volume one.
To maintain clarity, the water keeps running through various screening systems inside the main chamber. Mechanical filtration will make sure to remove the microorganisms like algae, debris, etc. While consuming harmful compounds like ammonia, the biological one works as a breeding ground for beneficial bacteria.
This part is essential if you want your fish or turtle to have clean and healthy aquatic surroundings. In fact, the plants of your tank get benefitted as well! The chemical media is to absorb the poisonous chemicals from your tank water.
The clean water will return to the fish tank through the outlet tubing after passing the filter media. As for the water pump, you can get an in-built one or one that is separately attached to the filter.
Benefits of A Canister Filter
You may have a saltwater aquarium or a freshwater aquarium, but the most important thing is to keep it clean regardless of type. Canister filters are quite useful if you think about all the benefits they provide.
- Versatility is one of the top advantages of a canister filter. You can use it in various types of aquariums while having the same amazing result. It will clean all the mess and dirt from the water just like that!
- A canister filter can provide you with all three types of filtration processes at once. Biological filtration makes sure the beneficial bacteria are intact, whereas chemical filtration makes the water toxin-free. And the mechanical filtration will ensure no debris in the water.
- One of the major issues with most filters is that they can clean the large pollutants but don’t effectively clean out the finer particles.
- But with canister filters, you can have both finer and larger particles wiped out due to its two filter specifications.
- A canister filter is pretty effective when it comes to performance. Most of these filters have a high flow rate of water coming in and out, which could be hundreds of gallons each hour. But even with that, your canister filter will do the work perfectly.
- The presence of ammonia in your aquarium is deadly for aquatic animals. The biological filter media converts the ammonia into harmless nitrogen composites. Thus, eliminating the fatal substances from the tank water.
- If you count noise level as a test, canister filters will pass with flying colors! While most filters make a minimum noise level during the filtering process, canister filters will spare you from the irritating sound. Even with the two filter configurations, it works pretty quietly.
- Canister filters are surprisingly easy to install. Given the filtering capacity and the complex configuration, setting up this one is sometimes easier than some internal filters. It is also easy to replace or take out the filtration media when necessary.
- Keep in mind, it uses activated carbon as the chemical filter media and fine mesh as the mechanical filter media. Both of them get clogged with the substances they entrap, meaning they won’t be active anymore. Hence, make sure to replace them once they get sealed.
How Frequently You Should Clean Your Canister Filter?
There is nothing in the world that doesn’t need maintenance. To ensure efficiency, you have to take care of anything and everything. The same goes for canister filters. If you want a canister filter that delivers quality performance for a long time, you have to take care of it in return. This is important if you want a functional aquarium.
Wash Once A Week:
You should check the company manual about when and how to clean the filter. It’s always better if you wash it once a week, but it is kind of impossible with our busy schedule. Hence, most aquarists only do it if it’s absolutely necessary. It means you don’t have to follow any rules regarding the cleaning procedure.
Observe Your Fish Tank:
You can just look for the signs. Just observe the state of the fish tank and look for anything different. Is the water inside looking cloudy? Or can you see algal growth or gunk covering the filter media? If yes, then don’t wait and cleanse the canister filter as soon as possible! The more you delay, the worse the aquarium water will get for the fish.
Do Not Clean All the Media at the Same Time:
Remember, not all filter media require to be cleaned at the same time. It depends on the condition and the type of media you are using. Biological media may need less cleaning than mechanical ones. The activated carbon gets clogged with toxic particles earlier than the other ones. As a result, water gets polluted quickly and may harm the fish.
At least every 3-Months:
Hence, you have to be alert and replace them whenever it is needed. But as a general idea, it is ideal to wash the canister filter every three months. You have to open the filter, deep cleanse the insides and the filter media, and clean the hosings. Once all the washing is done, you have to put them back together for later use.
As an aquarist, your fish tank or turtle tank becomes more than just a hobby to you. You would want to give those tiny creatures the best atmosphere to live in. Clean fish place water is the most significant part of maintaining an aquarium’s quality, which is only possible if you have a good setup of an aquarium filter.
Most power filters, like HOB filters, sponge filters, trickle filters, UV sterilizers, etc., are easy to install. As for the canister tank filter, the system is a bit different due to its different mechanisms. Hopefully, after going through this entire article, you have become more knowledgeable about how to set up a canister filter.